Manfaat Okra / Ocra pada Diabetes Mellitus / Kencing Manis

Manfaat Okra / Ocra pada Diabetes Mellitus / Kencing Manis
dr Cindiawaty Pudjiadi MARS, MS, SpGK
Spesialis Gizi Klinik
@drcmeal

Okra / Ocra / Lady finger / Abelmoschus esculentus linn. Merupakan sayur-sayuran yang kaya akan serat, selain itu okra mengandung vitamin dan mineral, antara lain vitamin C, folat, kalsium, kalium, magnesium. Okra mengandung serat larut, dimana serat larut dari okra ini dapat menurunkan penyerapan glukosa di usus. Biji yang terdapat di okrapun menurut penelitian (pada tikus) yang dilakukan oleh Thanakosai & Phuwapraisirisan (2013) dikatakan dapat menghambat penyerapan karbohidrat (maltase dan sukrase) di usus karena adanya kandungan isoquercetin dan quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl=(1” à 6”) –glucoside yang merupakan α-glucosidase inhibitor

Dalam 100 gr okra terdapat:
31 kalori
2 gr protein
7 gr karbohidrat
3.2 gr serat
21.1 mg vitamin C
88 mg folat
225 mg β-karoten
375 IU vitamin A
0.36 mg vitamin E (α-tocopherol)
53 mg vitamin K
81 mg kalsium
57 mg magnesium
303 mg kalium
63 mg fosfor
0.6 mg seng
0.7 mg selenium
8 gr natrium

Belum banyak penelitian yang dilakukan mengenai manfaat okra ini. Terutama manfaat nya untuk membantu menurunkan kadar gula darah pada diabetes mellitus, selain itu penelitian yang dilakukan lebih banyak pada hewan percobaan. Okra juga mengandung antioksidan: quecertin dan epigallocatechin, antioksidan ini penting dalam membantu menangkal radikal bebas, sehingga tidak merusak sel-sel dalam tubuh.

Beberapa penelitian yang sudah dilakukan:
– Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Perez, dkk , yang dimuat pada International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research (2013), untuk meneliti mengenai manfaat okra terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tikus. Berdasarkan penelitian tersebut, didapatkan penurunan kadar gula darah pada tikus yang diberikan okra. Pada penelitian ini okra dipotong 3 bagian, kemudian di rendam pada 250 ml air dan didiamkan semalaman, pada keesokan harinya potongan okra diangkat, tinggal cairan yang berlendir . Cairan berledir ini yang kemudian diberikan pada tikus, dengan dosis tertentu, untuk melihat efeknya terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah. Dari penelitian tersebut, didapatkan adanya penurunan gula darah pada tikus yang diberikan cairan berlendir dari okra tersebut.
– Penelitian lain yang dilakukan oleh Subrahmanyan (2011), mereka memberikan okra yang sudah dipotong-potong kemudian di rendam di air selama 1 jam , kemudian diperas dan diambil lendirnya, yang kemudian diberikan pada kelinci. Ternyata didapatkan adanya penurunan kadar gula darah secara bertahap, setelah diberikan okra selama 10 hari.
– Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Sabitha dkk (2011) mendapatkan bahwa okra dapat membantu dalam menurunkan kadar gula darah, juga kadar lemak darah, selain itu dapat membantu untuk menaikkan HDL
– Tomoda dkk melapaorkan bahwa polisakarida yang terdapat di okra mempunyai efek membantu menurunkan kadar gula darah.
– Penelitian lain yang dilakukan oleh Trinh dkk mendapatkan bahwa okra mempunyai manfaat dalam membantu menurunkan kadar kolesterol darah.
– Manfaat lain dari okra: untuk membantu dalam menyembuhkan penyakit iritasi lambung, penyakit inflamasi, hal ini disebabkan oleh adanya kandungan polisakarida di okra yang dapat menghambat melekatnya kuman H pylori di lambung.
Berdasarkan berbagai penelitian yang ada, dapat dilihat bahwa okra mempunyai banyak manfaat untuk kesehatan, akan tetapi penelitian yang dilakukan lebih banyak pada hewan percobaan, dan masih diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut, mengenai mekanisme nya dan zat-zat apa yang berperan.
Okra sebagai sayur mempunyai banyak kandungan gizi, selain itu okra mengandung tinggi serat. Untuk penyakit diabetes, adanya serat ini penting dalam membantu mengontrol kadar gula darah, apalagi dari beberapa penelitian, okra dapat membantu juga menurunkan kadar kolesterol darah, mengandung antioksidan, dapat membantu menghambat penyerapan karbohidrat dan kolesterol di usus. Jadi walaupun belum banyak penelitian yang dilakukan, tidak ada salahnya kita memasukkan okra ke dalam menu makanan kita sebagai salah satu sayuran yang dapat membantu meningkatkan kesehatan kita. Akan tetapi tentu saja bila sudah menyandang diabetes, obat-obat yang diberikan oleh dokter sebaiknya tetap dikonsumsi, sambil tetap menjaga pola makan yang bergizi lengkap dan seimbang, sesuai dengan kebutuhan masing-masing dan kondisi kesehatan masing-masing. Tidak ada salahnya untuk penyandang diabetes, berkonsultasi ke dokter spesialis gizi klinik yang ada di dekat tempat tinggal Anda, untuk mengetahui dan memonitor makanan yang perlu dikonsumsi, sehingga sesuai dengan kebutuhan masing-masing individu. Pengaturan diet pada penyandang diabetes tidak sama pada setiap individu, perlu disesuaikan dengan kondisi masing-masing.

Kepustakaan
Amin I. M. (2011). Nutritional Properties of Abelmoschus Esculentus as Remedy to Manage Diabetes Mellitus: A Literature Riview. International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology IPCBEE vol 11. IACSIT Press. Singapore.
Khatum H, dkk (2011)Water soluble Fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus L Interacts with glucose and metformin hydrochloride and alters their absorption kinetics after coadministration in rats.
Perez J.R.T, Baritua R.J, Pacalna M.O. & Malayao S. O. (2013) . Exploratory Investigation on the Hypoglycemic Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus in mice. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. Vol 2, issue 11. Pp 249-253. International Scholarly esearch nerwork, vol 2011.
Roy A, dkk (2014) Functional properties of okra abelmoschus esculentus l.:traditional claims and scientific evidences. Plant science today. 1 (3). Pp121-130.
Subrahmanyam dkk 92011) Antidiabetic activity of Abelmoschus Esculetus fruit extract. International journal of research in pharmacy and chemistry.

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